The application and development of engraving printing 2.4

IV. Engraving of the Yuan Dynasty

(I) Cultural Policy of the Yuan Dynasty

The rulers of the Yuan Dynasty were the northern ethnic minorities, the Mongolian people. The Mongolian people are known for their martial arts, live nomadic life and are in a slave society. In terms of economy and culture, it lags behind the Central Han dynasty where there have been hundreds of years of feudal society and history. After uniting the whole country, the Mongolians formulated a series of guidelines and policies to accelerate the development of the feudal system of the nation, consolidate the centralized rule, and develop production and promote the improvement of ideological and cultural construction.

1. Respect Confucianism, Reuse Confucian Scholars

In ideology and culture, learning from the ethnic minority ruling class such as Liao and Jin learn from the Han traditional culture as a reference. Gradually learned that the use of martial arts to set the world, the rule of Wende, and good rulers must use good laborers, and good followers must use the truth of Confucianism. "The History of Yuan" records: From Taizong and Taizong, they were known as "expensive Han people, Confucianism, and application methods." Since the Han dynasty, all the feudal rulers in China have used Confucianism founded by Confucius as orthodoxy. As a basic cultural and educational policy. When the ruling class in the Yuan Dynasty actively absorbs and accepts the Han cultural traditions, it is natural to first implement the principle of respecting Confucianism and Confucianism. Therefore, the Confucius Temple was built in various places and the emperor personally worshiped Confucius. The sealing of Confucius was for Dacheng Shengwen to proclaim the king and sealed the 50th Sun of the Confucius as Yan Shenggong. The supreme ruler of the Yuan Dynasty took the lead in the study of history, commanded the translation of Confucian writings, and asked the Confucian masters to teach Chinese classics, demanding that members of the royal family and the royal officials must read the Confucian classics. On the one hand, in order to improve the quality of the nation, on the other hand, it actively manages the Confucian doctrine to govern the country in order to consolidate the world that it has created with a strong bow. In the government, appointing Confucian scholars, such as Yelu Chuji, Zhao Fu, Xu Heng, Yao Shu, and a number of Han Chinese or ethnic minorities, among the Confucian scholars, have successively taken important positions. Under their propaganda and influence, Confucianism was widely disseminated in the Yuan Dynasty.

2. Set up schools and recruit talents

The ruling classes in the Yuan Dynasty attached importance to the advancement of education, which is an important part and concrete embodiment of implementing the principle of respecting Confucianism and Confucianism. Of course, it is for the sake of governance. Taizu established the Central Plains, that is, the establishment of a school, set up a department for appointees. In the early Yuan dynasty, Yuan Shizu established the Imperial College of the Imperial College and used Confucianism master Xu Heng as a scholar of Jijin Museum and a state government to savor wine and teach Confucian classics, cultivating students from the country and students of the Mongolian surnamed Xue Xue (Guards). Schools are vigorously established in places. All levels of the country, the government, and the state established Confucianism. During the second year of the reign of the ancestors, they ordered the school officials of the Zhulu Road, and all the students who had studied in the schools were strictly trained to ensure that they were ready for use by the country. "Yuan Shi Shi Zu Ji Ji" contains: "In the twenty-third year of the Yuan Dynasty, Dasinian Statistics Zhulu Confucianism has reached 20,166." Only two years later, "in twenty-five years, it will be 24,400." At the same time, the government also encouraged the establishment of academies as a supplement to regular schools. The academy has always been a gathering place for scholars of Confucian scholars. The rulers of the Yuan Dynasty entered the Central Plains and adopted protection policies for all the original culture and education, including the existing academies of the Song Dynasty, so as to achieve stability and support for unity. The intellectuals obey the rule of the Yuan and serve their purpose. During the Taizong period, the first academy in the Yuan Dynasty, the Taiji Academy, was established and taught by classical Confucianism Zhao Fu. Afterwards, Renzong ordered Xu Heng to host the Luzhai Academy. Therefore, the academy became an important base for the dissemination of Confucianism. The establishment of education and the cultivation of talents are, of course, for the purpose of transporting to the government and maintaining the rule of the Yuan Dynasty. Therefore, Yuan Shizu repeatedly emphasized: The four-party scholars have become talented scholars, and have served as ministers of Sinology, Hanlin Secretary, Taichang or Confucianism, etc., and the emperor repeatedly declared that talented persons are not limited to their grades, although the commoner is also used. . It expressed the country’s urgent desire to attach importance to talents and appointments.

3. Encourage class farming and mulberry protection

To stabilize social order and consolidate power. While advocating cultural and ideological education, the ruling class in the Yuan Dynasty has also taken active measures to develop production and prosperous economy. The rulers of the Yuan Dynasty also realized that the country was based on the people, the people were food and clothing, and food and food were based on the principle of farming and mulberry. They advocated the planting of mulberry trees, the development of agriculture, and the establishment of specialized agencies such as Si Nong Secretary and Da Si Nong Secretary. In charge of agricultural mulberry, water conservancy, and school affairs, the government stipulates rewarding cultivation. Litian has rewards, and idlers are punished. Grazing damage crops and mulberry jujube trees are to be compensated or even convicted. At the same time, for the craftsmen captured, the government took protective measures and did not kill them. Most of the handicraft workers who have been retained have certain technical expertise. Therefore, they laid a good foundation for the development of handicraft industry in the Yuan Dynasty.

As the government has adopted the correct policy of developing production, promoting education, and reusing talents. The society, economy, culture, literature, arts, science and technology of the Yuan Dynasty all achieved relatively comprehensive development and progress. Especially in terms of literature and arts, science and technology, astronomical calendar, agriculture, etc., remarkable achievements have been made. New descriptions in various subject areas have come out. Yuan Qu and the novel have considerable development. Guo Shoujing's calendar work and Wang Xi's "Agricultural Book" are all works with high scientific value. In the history of Chinese culture, it occupies a considerable position. Under this economic and cultural background, nature has also promoted the development of the printing industry. Therefore, although the time of the Yuan Dynasty ruled in the country was only 80 years, the printing and publishing industry has not only failed to stagnate, but also has made great progress. The printing technology itself has also seen new breakthroughs.

(II) Engraving of the Yuan Dynasty

After Kublai Khan took over Lin’an, he transported the central government of the Song Dynasty and the map books and editions of all counties in the Jiangnan region to the north. After the acceptance of the suicide note and the collection of folk scriptures, the number of books collected by the imperial family in the Yuan Dynasty increased greatly. At that time, the secretaries of the secretaries and Kui Zhangge were very rich in books. However, because of successive years of campaigns, the royal collection did not have the power to collate and collate. The management of collections is rather confusing and the government's use of the collections is not enough. Only the history of the Song, Liao, and Jin dynasties was compiled, and no major series of books such as other series or books were compiled.

The rulers of the Yuan Dynasty paid great attention to engraving and printing books. As early as before entering the Central Plains, an official engraved book was set up. In the 8th year of Emperor Taizong (1 236), a compilation and editing institute was established. In the Pingyang Station, the history books were edited and printed. According to "The History of Yuan", the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty always ordered and engraved the book for printing, especially in the following two situations: First, the history of the emperor was particularly interested in "producing all the way to the province and spreading the people." For example, in the three years of the book, Dao Tzu's Luo Tiemu, who was translated into Mongolian, entered the "Xiao Jing." Wu Zongxi's "This is the words spoken by Confucius, and since Wang Gongda was in Yumin, they all acted on the basis of the line and hit the seal of the provincial government. All the kings gave him ministers." Renzong read "University Religion" and believes that it is sufficient to rule the world. The commandments were printed at the same time as "The Filial Piety Classics" and "The Story of the Empresses". To the first year of Daedein, Mongolian, "Zhen Guanzheng." Yan You, a five-year-old Secretary of the National Academy of Agriculture, introduced the “Sang Sangtu Theory”, the emperor appreciated very much and helped the development of agriculture, that is, he printed and printed 1,000 copies and spread people widely. Another example: Taiding also engraved a book on “Saving the Debris and Calling People” for two years. It was issued in all counties and counties. Most of these books are in Mongolian versions and are very precious. Unfortunately, some have long been lost.

Because the royal family pays attention to books and books, it naturally has a positive influence on the printing industry in society.

The book-writing business of the Yuan Dynasty, like the Song Dynasty, was divided into three systems: the official government, the private engraving, and the bookshop.

Official engraving

There is a distinction between the central government and the local government in the book-engraving institutions of the government.

(1) The Central Government engraved the book. The Central Government has engraved the Xing Xing Department of the Secretaries, the Guangcheng Bureau of the Art and Cultural Supervision, the Bureau of the Taishi History Bureau, and the Guanghui Bureau or Medical Promotion Department of the Tai Hospital. The Central Government Engraved Book is best known for the engraving of the Xing Xing Department. The earliest existing Hu Zi Provinces Mirror of Mirroring, engraved by the Hing Wun Department to the 27th year. Art and cultural supervision of Mongolian translation of Confucianism and collation of Confucian classics, engraved books rarely circulated. The "Yuan Shi" records that "Yan Tie Mu Er Shi Jia" was printed in "Yi Tie Mu Er Shi Jia". Tai hospital in the 14th year of Dade's "San Ji Ji Lu", Guo Zijian Yuan Yu three-year small book "Treatise on" Ten volumes. Other official engraved books such as "Zhiyuan New Style", "Dayuan Communication System", and "Management Mirror" of Mongolian were all engraved by the central government at that time, or the central government appointed the provincial government.

(2) Local government engraving. Local government engraved books are best known for their various Confucianism and academies.

1 Various Confucianism books. According to the predecessors’ knowledge of this book and the related investigation and research data in recent years, there are four categories according to the classics, history, sons, and sets. Examples are as follows:

The Ministry of Economics: Zhongxing Road, Confucianism, the Sixteenth Year of the Yuan Dynasty (1278), Shen Shen?? The Spring and Autumn Tendency, twenty volumes; Zhangzhou Road, Confucianism, the twenty-ninth year (1292), Zhang Zhang?? Three volumes; Wuchang Road Confucianism Huangqing two years (1313) engraved Wang Shen's "Great Changes Series" ten volumes; Linjiang Lu Yanyou six years (1319) carved Zhang Qi "Spring and Autumn Annals" Volume 22 ; Luzhou Road Confucianism in the first year (1266) engraved gold Song Xiang, "On Meng Concentration Argument" Ten volumes.

Department of History: Taiping Lu Dade nine years (1305) carved "Han" 120 volumes; Ning Guolu carved "Book of the Later Han Dynasty" 120 volumes; Ruizhou Road carved "Shu Shu" 85 volumes; Jianning Road carved "New Book of Tang" Volume 225; Chizhou Road, Dade five years (1301) engraved "Three Kingdoms" 65 volumes; Shinshu Road carved "Northern History" 100 volumes, "Southern History" Eighty volumes; Hangzhou Road to the first three years (1343 years) in the "Liao History" 161 volumes, "History of the History of History" volume 135, "Song History" 496 volumes.

Sub-Division: from the Qingyuan Road to the Yuan Sixth year (1340), four volumes of the "Yu Hai," two hundred volumes of the "Attached Verse Guide", and the second year of Taiding (1325), engraved twenty volumes of "Zi Xue Ji Wen"; Pingjiang Road to the twenty-fifth year (1365) engraved "Wu Shidao corrected Bao Yu's note war strategy" ten volumes; Longxing Road Taiding four years (1327) engraved "Medical Sutra" ten volumes.

Collection Department: Jiaxing Road to Datong Four Years (1311) at the inscription "Lu Xuan Gong Ji" Volume 22; Yanzhou Road to Zheng Yuan (1341) at the engraved Chen Yu, "Mr. Beixi Daquan Collection" fifty volumes; Yangzhou Lu Zhiyuan In the five years (1339), there were fifteen volumes of "Ma Shitian's Anthology".

From the above, it can be seen that the number of Confucianism books in Yuan Dynasty was large, and the contents involved various types of knowledge, and localities were also more common. Moreover, many of the Central Provincial Departments ordered the carvings of the roads, or were engraved by various lines of the Confucian school to distribute the Confucianism. Such as: Jiangxi, Zhejiang line in the book province, engrave "Liao history", "History of gold", Yangzhou Road, Confucianism, Jiangbei, Huai Dong Road, engraved and engraved "Martin Stone Collection." Confucianism engraved the most famous book of each road history book, historical history of the nine-year history of Confucianism and seventeen books. After research, there is no history of the nineteen-history. How much is it? The opinions of each individual are not uniform. According to the description of Shulin Qinghua, the engraved history of Confucianism in Yuan Dynasty was actually the history of Qilu carved ten.

2 book engraving school. The book engravings in the Yuan Dynasty were very elaborate and had more influence in the local government's engraving system. E.g:

Fuling Xingxian College Yuanzhi Twenty Years (1300 Years) Engraved Wang Ruoxu's "The Collection of Old Masters of Southern Fujian" Forty

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